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Canada

Monthly Updates

January 2023

In western Canada, agreements between Indigenous Nations and stakeholders will increase the former’s participation in decision-making regarding development projects that directly impact their resources and lands. The Yaq̓it ʔa·knuqⱡi ‘it (YQT) community from British Columbia and mining company NWP Coal Canada have agreed that the former’s leadership will be able to veto and act as regulator of a development project involving a proposed metallurgical coalmine, valued at 400 million Canadian dollars.  Also in British Columbia, the Blueberry River First Nations community and the provincial government agreed to strengthen protections to the environment and restrictions to extraction projects, as well as the establishment of a restoration fund to address the impact of the extraction industry in the Indigenous Nation’s lands. 

December 2022
Watch flag

Alberta has approved a law (Alberta Sovereignty within a United Canada Act) that would enable it to ignore federal laws and regulations not accepted by the province or considered harmful to its interests. The administration of Danielle Smith, the province's premier, has argued the act could be implemented in areas such as public health, and oil and environmental policy, in which disagreements with Ottawa have been notable. Critics have underscored that the implementation of this law could imperil legislation regarding Indigenous Peoples’ rights and treaty rights, yet many critics and constitutional experts also consider that the act is unlikely to overcome a constitutional challenge in the courts.

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GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
38 246 110
System of government
Parliamentary system
Head of government
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (since 2015)
Head of government party
Liberal Party
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
First Past the Post
Women in lower or single chamber
30.5%
Women in upper chamber
48.9%
Last legislative election
2021
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
3.79
Head of state
King Charles III
Selection process for head of state
Hereditary or election by hereditary state rulers
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
11/05/2018
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
74.55%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
No Action
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
State Party
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
American Convention on Human Rights
No Action
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
No Action
in
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Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
Sep 2022
Oct
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Feb 2023
Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
Sep 2022
Oct
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Representative government neutral Checks on government
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Oct
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Representative government neutral Impartial administration
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Oct
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Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
Sep 2022
Oct
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Dec
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Feb 2023

GSoD Indices

Regime type
0 10