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Brazil

Monthly Updates

January 2023

On 8 January, supporters of former president Jair Bolsonaro stormed Congress and the seats of the executive branch and the judiciary. The government buildings were broken into and vandalized. Bolsonaro’s supporters alleged fraud in the October elections and demanded military intervention to oust President Luiz Inacio Lula Da Silva, who had taken office a week earlier. The Supreme Court has decided to investigate whether or not former president Bolsonaro was involved in inciting this attack, as well as the possible complicity of members of security forces in allowing it to happen. The Court also issued arrest warrants against two top security officials for their apparent collusion. Over a thousand protesters were arrested, many of whom have been charged with crimes and are now awaiting trial. 

November 2022

The Superior Electoral Court (Tribunal Supremo Electoral) rejected a legal challenge from Bolsonaro’s Liberal Party, aimed at invalidating the votes registered by certain voting machines used in the presidential election. The Court characterised the complaint as made in bad faith and imposed the party a fine of 22.9 million reais. While president Bolsonaro did not expressly concede defeat in the presidential election, his administration has initiated the transition process with president elect Lula's team.

October 2022

Lula won the second-round elections held on 30 October, narrowly defeating incumbent Jair Bolsonaro after an extremely polarizing race, in which voter turnout was 79.4 per cent of those registered. This follows the first round, in which neither Lula nor the incumbent attained the needed 50.0 per cent of votes.  Thousands of Bolsonaro’s supporters protested the results and blocked traffic, some even calling on the military to intervene. Almost two days after the election took place, Bolsonaro’s administration acknowledged that the initiation of the transition process had been authorised.  Increased tension resulted in acts of politically based violence prior to the run-off, including the fatal stabbing of a Lula supporter in September. Moreover, increased power to oversee online content and measures to combat disinformation by the Tribunal Supremo Electoral (TSE) have been criticized as overreach.  In elections to congress, two Indigenous women were elected and, in a historic first, two trans women also won their parliamentary races. In the chamber of deputies, women’s representation increased from 15.0 to 17.7 per cent, but in the senate it decreased to only 12.3 per cent. Lula will govern with a congress in which members of Bolsonaro’s party make up the largest parliamentary group.

Explore past monthly updates

GSoD Indices Data 2012-2021

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Basic Information

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Population Tooltip
214 326 223
System of government
Presidential system
Head of government
President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (since 2023)
Head of government party
Workers' Party (PT)
Electoral system for lower or single chamber
List Proportional Representation
Women in lower or single chamber
17.7%
Women in upper chamber
16.1%
Last legislative election
2022
Effective number of political parties Tooltip
12.34
Head of state
President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Selection process for head of state
Direct election (two-round majority)
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) date
05/05/2017
Latest Universal Periodic Review (UPR) percentage of recommendations supported
98.37%
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Human Rights Treaties

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State Party State party
Signatory Signatory
No Action No action
United Nations Human Right Treaties
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
State Party
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
State Party
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
State Party
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
State Party
Convention on the Rights of the Child
State Party
International Convention on Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
No Action
International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 
State Party
International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
State Party
International Labour Organisation Treaties
Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
No Action
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
State Party
Equal Remuneration Convention
State Party
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention
State Party
Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention
State Party
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
State Party
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
State Party
Regional Treaties
American Convention on Human Rights
State Party
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
State Party
in
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Early Warning System BETA

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Low risk of democratic breakdown Low risk of democratic breakdown (BETA)
Currently experiencing democratic backsliding Currently experiencing democratic backsliding (BETA)

Attributes Over Time

Representative government neutral Representative Government
Sep 2022
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb 2023
Representative government neutral Fundamental rights
Sep 2022
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb 2023
Representative government neutral Checks on government
Sep 2022
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb 2023
Representative government neutral Impartial administration
Sep 2022
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb 2023
Representative government neutral Participatory engagement
Sep 2022
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb 2023

GSoD Indices

Regime type
0 10