In Africa, democratic aspirations remain high and institutions remain resilient amidst challenges.
In most African countries, regular elections remain the norm for transfer of power. Amidst the pandemic, election management bodies (EMBs) adapted to the rising health and safety challenges, showing resiliency and flexibility. Moreover, EMBs ensured that most national and/or subnational scheduled elections remained on course.
Authoritarianism continues to define MENA.
The Middle East and North Africa remains the least democratic region in the world. It is the region with the largest share of authoritarian regimes, seven of which are the most enduring such regimes in the world, countries that have never experienced a change in regime type. In spite of this context, countries have transitioned to democracy and have done so without experiencing hybridity as part of the transition. Of the five countries that have become a democracy at some point (Lebanon in 2000, Iraq in 2005, Libya in 2012, Sudan in 1986, and Tunisia in 2011), three have maintained their status as democracies (Iraq, Lebanon, and Tunisia).